Distribution in the area:
Etheostoma, from the Greek,
etheo, "filter", and stoma, "mouth"
exile, from the Latin, "slim"
Common name, from its swimming behavior and its occurence
in the state of Iowa.
Phylum Chordata, animals with a spinal chord
Subphylum Vertebrata, animals with a backbone
Superclass Osteichthyes, bony fishes
Class Actinopterygii, ray-finned and spiny rayed fishes
Order Perciformes, the perch-like fishes
Family Percidae, the true perches
A moderate-sized darter of clear,
males bright green with dark
brown blotches and small red spots
females grey brown without bright pigmentation
belly fading to yellow or gold and white
prominent black bar below the eye in both sexes
dorsal fin of 9-11 rays
anal fin of 7 rays
incomplete lateral line of about 60 scales
cheeks, opercles and nape scaled; the breast naked
Small size and prominent, double
dorsal fin distinguishes as a darter.
Male best distinguished from other darters by its bright
coloration. Look for black eye bar in both sexes.
sluggishly vegetated streams and weedy portions of glacial
lakes, marshes, and ponds.
Forest clearing and drainage practices have reduced
its habitat and warmed the remaining waters enough to
eliminate this species in the southern portions of its
range. In the US it is now common only in non-agricultural
Primarily midge larvae, mayfly
larvae, and amphipods
Reproduction: Spawns in sandy
areas or beneath stream banks in April and May.
Only a few eggs are laid in each spawning sequence.
for this one in the clear shallows at portage landings
in Canoe Country.